By F. Armon. North Park University. 2018.
Classically the patient has a brief loss of consciousness Management at the time of injury buy crestor 20 mg without a prescription, then a lucid interval followed r Resuscitate as necessary with management of the air- by development of headache order 10mg crestor otc, progressive hemipare- way, breathing and circulation. Headache, drowsiness, and confusion in cerebellar bleeds which may cause obstructive hy- (dementia if chronic) are common. Anyrisk factors present, particularly hypertension, should be managed to help prevent recurrence. Subarachnoid haemorrhage Aetiology Denition Tearingofbloodvesselswhichmaybetraumaticorspon- Spontaneous intracranial arterial bleeds into the sub- taneous. Risk Incidence factors include a tendency to fall and clotting abnormal- 15 per 100,000 per year. Saccular or berry aneurysms arise due to defects in the 2 Oral nimodipine (a calcium-channel blocker) has internal elastic lamina of arteries and occur in 2% of the been shown to reduce mortality. Severe hypertension may junctionsofarteriesonthecircleofWillisorwithitsadja- needtobecontrolledbuthypotensionmustbeavoided cent branches. Common sites include the anterior com- to prevent further loss of perfusion pressure, so pa- municating artery, the posterior communicating artery tients are kept well hydrated with intravenous saline. Most are idiopathic, but 3 In suitable patients surgical or radiological interven- theyareassociatedwithdiseasessuchasarteritis,coarcta- tion for aneurysms takes place a few days later in a tionoftheaorta,Marfanssyndromeandadultpolycystic neurosurgical centre: kidney disease. Neurolog- ical signs, papilloedema and retinal haemorrhages may Prognosis be present. Without Alayer of blood is present over the brain in the subara- interventiontheriskofrebleedingis30%inthefollowing chnoid space and in the cerebrospinal uid. Complications Intracranial venous thrombosis The blood acts as an irritant, causing vascular spasm leading to further ischaemia, infarction and cerebral Denition oedema. Pathophysiology r Cortical vein thrombosis results in a stroke and The organisms may spread directly from the nasophar- seizures. This condition arises from raisedintracranialpressure,cranialnervepalsiesorother mastoiditis and is now rare. Neisseria meningitidis may cause meningitis, sep- loedema, focal signs, confusion and epilepsy. Patients are examined for a petechial rash which sug- Bacterial meningitis gests N. Complications Aetiology Neurological and cerebrovascular complications in- The likely organism changes with age. In adults, the clude intracranial venous thrombosis, cerebral oedema most common are Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus and hydrocephalus. Less common intravascular coagulation occur in 810% of patients organisms include gram-negative bacilli (particularly as with meningococcal meningitis. There may be r Nasopharyngeal clearance may be recommended for oedema, focal infarction and congested vessels in the the patient and household kissing contacts, e. Cephalosporins provide good clearance of nasal carriage in the patient, but penicillins do not. Poor givenstill demonstrates the causative organism in many prognostic markers include hypotension, confusion and cases. Abroad-spectrum antibiotic such as a cephalosporin at high doses is initially recommended due to the increasing emergence of penicillin-resistant strepto- Viral meningitis cocci. Once cultures and sensitivities are available, the course and choice of agent can be determined Denition (ceftriaxone/cefotaxime for Haemophilus inuenzae Acute viral infection of the meninges is the most com- andStreptococcuspneumoniae,penicillinforN. Aetiology Pathophysiology Mayarise as a complication of miliary tuberculosis or In viralmeningitis there is a predominantly lymphoid in primary or post primary infections. Ifatuberculous focus develops in the brain, meninges or Rash, upper respiratory symptoms and occasionally di- skull and ruptures into the subarachnoid space, a hyper- arrhoeamaybepresent. This inammation can directly involve the cranial are absent in recurrent infections. Clinical features Culture is possible, but rarely useful clinically as it The onset is usually insidious over days or weeks, al- takes up to 2 weeks. Focal neurology may develop If bacterial meningitis is suspected, broad-spectrum an- at this time including cranial nerve signs and hemi- tibiotics must be given without delay. Macroscopy/microscopy The subarachnoid space is lled with a viscous green exudate, the meninges are thickened and tubercles and Tuberculous meningitis chronic inammation may be seen in the brain and on Denition the meninges. Treatment Metastatic carcinoma and should be initiated on clinical suspicion, before conr- adenocarcinomas mation, as deterioration can occur within days, and even Auto-immune/ Systemic lupus erythematosus Inammatory Behcets disease when treated mortality is as high as 1540%. Sarcoid Corticosteroids have been shown to reduce vascular Drugs Particularly nonsteroidal complications, and improve survival and neurological anti-inammatory drugs function. If it is not clear whether the process is bacterial or vi- Aetiology ral, antibiotics may be given empirically whilst awaiting The differential diagnosis for these cases of aseptic further investigation. Acute viral encephalitis Investigations/management In many cases of aseptic meningitis, the diagnosis is of Denition aself-limiting, benign viral meningitis. However, it is Inammation of the brain parenchyma caused by important to consider these other causes, particularly if viruses. Around the world, arthropod- In all cases except herpes simplex encephalitis there is borne viruses cause epidemics and rabies causes an no effective treatment apart from supportive manage- almost invariably fatal encephalitis. Sus- pected cases of herpes encephalitis are treated urgently Pathophysiology with high dose i. Inammation affects the meninges and parenchyma causing oedema and hence Prognosis raised intracranial pressure, diffuse and focal neurolog- Herpes simplex encephalitis has a mortality of 20% de- ical dysfunction. Seizures (par- ticularly temporal lobe seizures) are also a presenting Tetanus feature. Denition Tetanus is a toxin mediated condition causing muscle Macroscopy/microscopy spasms following a wound infection. The meninges are hyperaemic, the brain is swollen, sometimes with evidence of petechial haemorrhage and necrosis. There is cufng of blood vessels by mononu- Aetiology clear cells and viral inclusion bodies may be seen. Clostridium tetani (the causative organism), an anaero- bic spore forming bacillus, originates from the faeces of domestic animals. Tracheostomy and ventilatory support may r Generalisedtetanusisthemostcommonpresentation, be necessary for severe laryngeal spasm. The Childrenareroutinelyvaccinatedagainsttetanusfrom facial muscles may contort to cause a typical expres- age 2 months. Any sensory stimulation such asnoiseresultsingeneralisedmusclespasmsincluding Poliomyelitis arching of the back (opisthotonos). Spasms of the lar- ynx can impede respiration, and autonomic dysfunc- Denition tion causes arrhythmias, sweating and a labile blood Infection of a susceptible individual with poliovirus type pressure.
Although fundamentally altering a sexual interest is not viewed as poss- ible order crestor 20mg online, managing the interest is order 20 mg crestor mastercard. In this framework, exploration of underlying life history themes takes place after behavioral goals have been achieved and relapse prevention strategies learned, and is conceptualized as of secondary importance relative to the need for behavioral control. The current classication system, the multitude of etiological theories and their inferred treatment approaches, and the tendency for outcome studies to focus on specic paraphilias imply that specic paraphilias require specic treat- ments. Psychiatric Assessment of Paraphilias Assessment informs the clinician regarding necessary intensity of treatment and which psychotherapeutic modalitiesindividual, group, or conjoint coupleare called for. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to detail the components of the full psychiatric-psychosexual evaluation. Rather, those assessment components uniquely related to the paraphilias are highlighted. Dening the impairment: Because psychological treatment focuses on those aspects of the disorder most related to functional impairment, identication of the specic nature of impairment is essential. An individual can have low or average biological drive and still experience frequent distressing and intrusive sexual cognitions. Distorted cognitions that promote denial or minimization or blame others for the problematic behavior contribute to impaired judgment and increase the risk of behavior, particularly in the offending paraphilias. As along as distortions are present, internal motivation to control behavior is minimal and the risk of paraphilic behavior remains signicant. High biological drive may fuel sexual urges or crav- ings that are preoccupying, distressing, and difcult to control, increasing the risk of behavioral escalation. Drive assessment inquires about an individuals ability to control his urges, his subjective experience of his drive, frequency of masturbation, and amount of time spent feeling sexually preoccupied. The presence of high drive and/or preoccupying urges and cravings demands consideration of a pharmacological intervention early in treatment. Although most patients describe themselves as sexually obsessed and preoccupied, and most endorse impairment in controlling their urges, only a fraction experiences difculty in the form of high drive or genital hyperarousability. This highlights the importance of assessing the nature and intensity of sexual cravings from a psychological as well as biological perspective. Some individuals suffer extreme nancial consequences due to purchasing online sexual services, phone sex activities, or hiring sex workers. Most signicantly, some paraphilias lead to severe legal consequences and harm to others. The more exclusive the paraphilia, the more likely it pre- cludes sexual intimacy with an appropriate partner. Some individuals seek help because they have been discovered engaging in paraphilic behavior by a spouse, partner, or employer. This individual may have an egosyntonic relation- ship to the paraphilia, in that he experienced no apparent distress other than that associated with being discovered. Although this may reect an underlying anti- social or narcissistic personality component that will contribute to poor treatment outcome, this conclusion should be resisted until objective evidence is presented. Distorted cognitions that enable an egosyntonic attitude are common in paraphi- lias that have been enacted secretly over time and may resolve with successful treatment. However, the real presence of underlying sociopathy results in a rigidly egosyntonic attitude and carries signicant negative implications for treat- ment outcome. Without rigorous assessment, the degree to which personality factors are contributing to disordered attitude will remain unclear. Paraphilic expression may be limited to fantasies, with little immediate risk of behavioral escalation. Danger may be symbolic and benign or real and potentially lethal, as in cases reecting loss of control or confusion regarding the boundary between consent and coercion. Assessment of self-mutilating behaviors is particularly critical in transvestic fetishism, where gender dysphoric transvestites may report attempts at auto-castration. Therefore, these variables comprise a critical aspect of risk assessment in pedophilia. Hanson and colleagues, in their excellent reviews, have pointed out that structured assessment of these specic risk factors is more effective than unstructured clinical assessment. Comorbid multiple paraphilias, depressive, anxiety, and sub- stance abuse disorders are common. Although there is no empirical evidence that paraphilias are commonly associated with particular personality disorders, person- ality disorders may co-occur. Comorbidity assessment claries the nature and extent of functional impairment, identies potential obstacles to treatment success, and informs pharmacological decisions and decisions about initial treatment focus. Group psychotherapy is often the modality of choice, particularly in severe or offending paraphilias. Although individual treatment can target para- philia related impairments, the potency of group therapy to do so, through both therapeutic support and therapeutic confrontation, is greater. Recent outcome studies, using rates of recidivism, suggest that treatment outcomes in pedophilia are relatively positive (169171). This is contrary to common myth that sexual offenders are untreatable and has positive implications for the application of similar treatments to other paraphilias (172). The development of insight is not central to the cognitive-behavioral model, but insight oriented strategies may be integrated in order to achieve par- ticular goals. Because the paraphilias represent a heterogeneous group, treatment must be individualized and the basic framework adjusted in order to accommo- date individual presentations. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to detail cognitive-behavioral treatment protocols. Treatment addresses the cognitions, feelings, urges, and behaviors that are related to the cycle of paraphilic regression. Any factor that increases the odds of paraphilic behavior occurring is conceptualized as a trigger or high risk association. The identication of triggers, an under- standing of the relative risk associated with each, and the development of concrete strategies to manage them are central components of early treatment. Making decisions about complete or partial avoidance of triggers is a critical aspect of treatment and, later, relapse prevention. Cognitive distortions provide justication for inappropriate behavior and allow the individual to minimize or deny the negative effects on self and others.
All worked wonderfully buy discount crestor 5mg on line, but he preferred tadalal buy 20mg crestor fast delivery, because of the 36 h duration of action. He reported that his new girlfriend supposedly had six orgasms in 27 years with all her boyfriends; yet with me, she had ve in one day. When his girlfriend visited 6 months later, he initially used low dose sildenal successfully. Reportedly, they now have twice weekly coitus, fully weaned from medication, for the past 5 months. The author will see him again in 2 months for follow-up to minimize relapse potential. Treatment may require a multidisciplinary team in cases of severe dys- function, and may be recalcitrant to success even under this ideal circumstance. Team approaches and composition will vary according to clinician specialty training, interest, and geographic resources. However, typically a clinician refers within their own academic institution, or within their own professional referral networka kind of virtual multidisciplinary team. Endocrine, gynecologic, or urologic referrals for the patient or partner may be required, and would usually be readily available. Identifying psychological factors does not necessarily mean that nonpsychiatric physicians must treat them. If not inclined to counsel, or, if uncomfortable, these physicians should consider referring or working conjointly with a sex therapist. Awareness of their own limit- ations will appropriately prompt these physicians to refer their patients for adjunctive consultation. Whether the referral is physician or patient initiated, sex therapists are ready to effectively assist in educating the patient about maximiz- ing their response to the sexual situation. Sex therapists are also equipped to help resolve the intrapsychic and inter- personal blocks (resistance) to restoring sexual health (20,42). Some clinicians are uncomfortable discussing sex, and many important issues remain unexplored because of clinician anxiety and time constraints. They are trained to manage the most difcult cases involving process-based trauma that are replicated in the current relationship. Sex therapists can enhance hope, facilitate optimism and maxi- mize placebo response. There can be an increased individualization of treatment format, by ne-tuning therapeutic suggestions, as well as improving response to medication by optimizing timing and titration of dose. Finally, sex therapists are skilled in using cognitive-behavioral techniques for relapse prevention. All of these issues impact potential and capacity for success- ful restoration of sexual health. Delineating all permutations, of multidisciplinary team approaches likely to be utilized for the next decade, is beyond the scope of this chapter. Case Study: Jon and Linda Jon and Linda were referred to the author by Jons current psychopharmacolo- gist. Jon is a 62 years old nancier who has been married to Linda (53 years old) for over 20 years. Their marriage was marked by periods of disharmony secondary to multiple etiologies. Jon and Linda had a symbiotic relationship where she dominated much of their daily life. She tended to be explicitly critical of him, which he resented but managed passive-aggressively. Linda was particularly sensitive to rejection, and was considerably upset when Jon withdrew from her in response to her criticism. He even- tually responded, becoming loud and aggressive, which initially dissipated his tension. This pushpull process would begin anew, characterizing the rhythm of their marriage. Jon and Linda enjoyed high frequency successful coital activity with mutually enjoyable coital orgasms, despite their intermittent marital disharmony over a 15-year period. They both wanted Jon on the antidepressant medications, yet their marital conict increased. He needed to move to a different city in order to nd work, uprooting Linda and the kids. This left her slightly depressed, but predominantly, critical of him and doubting the viability of their marriage. She was helped to reframe his withdrawal, as insecurity, not rejection or abandonment of her. Her criticalness was reduced, which led to a reduction in his passive-aggressive behavior. Although not resolving the individual and marital dynamics, these insights increased harmony enough, for a sexual pharmaceutical to become effective. The drugs longer duration of action allowed him to respond to her receptivity cues, which she dropped like a hankie. However, if only due to pharmaceutical advertising, most patients will rst consult with a physician who will hopefully possess sex counseling expertise, as well as a prescription pad. This physician would adjust treatment according to the individual and couples history, sexual script, and intra and interpersonal dynamics. All clinicians want to optimize the patients response to appropriate medical intervention. However, it is equally important to not collude with the patients unrealistic expectations of either his or her own idealized capacities, or an idealization of the treating clinicians abilities. These fantasies are based on ignorance and may reect unresolved psychological concerns. There are situ- ations when it is appropriate to either make a referral within a team approach or to decline to treat a patient. Signicant, process based, developmental predisposing factors, usually speak to the need for resolution of psychic wounds prior to the introduction of the sexual pharmaceutical. Sexuality is a complex interaction of biology, culture, developmental, and current intra and interpersonal psychology. Restoration of lasting and satisfying sexual function requires a multidimensional understanding of all of the forces that created the problem, whether a solo physician or multidisciplinary team approach is used.
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