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By T. Benito. Tusculum College. 2018.

This ex- plained why it might take so very long (a long latency) for cancer induction discount aciclovir 200mg fast delivery. The carcinogen was tightly intercalated purchase 200mg aciclovir with visa, could not be detoxified or pulled out, and was causing mutations all that time. Ascaris worms also bring two harmful bacteria: Rhizobium leguminosarum and Mycobacterium avium/cellulare. More re- search is needed to determine whether these are really responsi- ble for our mis-biochemistry. It could be these that are actually responsible for the tapeworm mis-biochemistry. Next thiourea levels decrease, allowing thyroxine to replenish, and a whole host of cell functions begin to normalize! Fungus species produce special chemicals called mycotoxins to fight the bacteria that are constantly trying to take away their feeding grounds. Actually, the molds that make these mycotoxins grow everywhere in such abundance that we have government agencies to monitor them, even in animal feed. But the presence of zearalenone in Russet potatoes is not controlled by an agency (because it is my own recent dis- covery). Afla- toxin is a large flat molecule that intercalates between the bases of our nucleic acids. It can be found in our skin-fat when we are well and in our organ-fat when we are ill. To my knowledge this is the first and only incidence of benzene formed by a plant or animal. Benzene destroys our good (organic) germanium, chang- ing it into bad (inorganic) germanium. Germanium and Asbestos Good germanium (called carboxyethylgermanium sesqui- 45 oxide) brings us special immunity; it induces interferon and 44 Ibid. For instance on apples and plums, undoubtedly picked up from conveyer belts that contain asbes- tos, because when the fruit is washed and the stem and blossom removed, the Syncrometer finds the asbestos gone. Sugar also tests positive to asbestos, possibly from also being transported on belts, and you can not wash sugar! As soon as it is swal- lowed, your white blood cells try to remove it by eating the sharp asbes- tos needles. Your body tries another plan: cover the tips with a protein that will 48 act like gum, keeping the needles together and blunted. The protein chosen is ferritin, whose neatly shaped molecule is now torn by the asbestos spears, exposing its iron core. Exposed iron is highly oxidizingit over-oxidizes everything in the vicinity, including good germanium, making it bad. Oxidized germanium may be responsible for attacking the spleen somehow and causing the anemia that is a common cause of death for cancer sufferers, because the Syn- crometer always detects bad germanium at the spleen. This implies good germanium is necessary to prevent cancer, and other research 49 suggests this also. Fortunately, asbestos can be removed in days from your vi- tal organs by avoiding asbestos contaminated foods and drink- ing lots of fluids. So that, too, gets top priority along with para- site killing in the 21 Day Program. There is no detoxifying ability there and no immu- nity; they must simply pile up there. It will not grow into an uncontrolled tumor, though, as long as it can still self-destruct (apoptose) as fast as it multiplies. The bcl-2 gene produces bcl-2 for thirty seconds, followed by bax for thirty seconds, in endless continuity. A wart has started to multiply abnormally, but its genes that govern killing off excess cells still work, so a warts growth reaches a limit. A true tumor is also multiplying abnormally, but its apopto- sis mechanism is broken, so it grows limitlessly. If we could keep from mutating our bcl-2 and bax genes, our small, helpless masses would stay that way. Cell Problems Intensify But by now, our small mass has a large quantity of metals and dye accumulated. The effects of mis-biochemistry (parasite induced mutagens, like 1,10-phenanthroline) are spreading, too. Sulfur levels are getting too low to let metal sulfides be formed for safe excretion. This means that as glad as you will be to see your tumors shrink, you must not become complacent! Even the normally beneficial iron can join the harmful 54 metals when it produces oxygen radicals. Normally phosphate combines with nucleic acids to form nucleoside phosphate complexes called nucleotides. I have discovered that vanadyl complexes do one more thing: they cause p53 mutations. It can recognize mutations, like intercalation, and stop those cells from multiplying. I find p53 mutations also occur when tapeworm larvae are present, even without vanadium. If p53, also called the tumor suppresser gene, is incapacitated, how long can the hy- peractive little mass be controlled so a tumor does not develop? The Final Defense More and more mutations, many of them translocations (misplacement) of chromosome parts, are occurring now that p53 is gone (mutated). The cells are completely dis- abled as productive members of their community due to these mutations. Yet they must multiply, because Clostridium is fill- ing the cells with toxic amines, the brakes (pyruvic aldehyde) are out, and the accelerator (thiourea) given full reign.

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Necrosis and calcifcations manifestations suggestive of neurocysticercosis order aciclovir 800 mg, positive are common purchase 200mg aciclovir overnight delivery. From these criteria two degrees of diagnostic cer- tainty may derived: (1) defnitive diagnosis, in patients Te incubation time is highly variable ranging from who have one absolute criterion or in those who have months to several years. Children and adults can be in- two major plus one minor and one epidemiological cri- fected. Te majority of patients are in their third to ffh terion; and (2) probable diagnosis in patients who have decade of life. Clinical presentation is typically unspe- one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have cifc. In later stages of the disease symptoms of vascular one major plus one minor and one epidemiological cri- or biliary compression (including icterus) may occur terion, and in those who have three minor plus one epi- due to signifcant mass efects as well as ascites, abdomi- demiological criterion. Spontaneous Parasitic Infections 159 rupture of Echinococcus cysts leads to parasitic spread 10. Patients with cere- bral echinococcosis may present with headaches, focal Te main diferential diagnoses for the cystic form neurological defcits, seizures, and hydrocephalus. Gliomas, metastases, tuberculomas, and fungal infections are the most important diferen- tials for the alveolar form (E. Resection of the pericyst usually enables a safe Epidemiology removal of the hydatid. Rupture or incidental surgical opening of the cyst is a severe complication, however, Trichinella spiralis is a human pathogen nematode with a with uncontrollable spread of parasites. Afer nearly complete elimina- completely resectable hydatids long-term medication tion of the disease in Europe during the late nineteenth with mebendazole and albendazole is required. In con- century, the rate of infections is actually increasing with trast, surgical treatment is rarely an option in E. Organ invasion and destruction ofen makes of Trichinella is that each infected animal or human is a complete removal of the conglomerated alveolar cysts a defnite host and also becomes an intermediate host impossible. Te adult worms live benzimidazoles is the only therapeutic option but is not in the intestine (defnite host), the larvae in the periph- a curative approach. Te larvae ac- tively enter the blood or lymphatic system, from where Cerebral hydatids have a predilection for the hemi- they distribute to the peripheral muscles. Here the lar- spheres, in particular the parietal lobe and the vascular vae enter muscle cells, encapsulate, and persist infec- territory of the middle cerebral artery. Te more than 1-mm-large pear as solitary or multiple thin-walled spherical cysts capsules containing dead larvae calcify and are visible that show no contrast enhancement and no peripheral during butchery. Magnetic resonance imaging may show particu- late substrate within the cyst that represents daughter scolices and hydatid sand (aggregates of scolices). Cerebral alveolar echinococcosis appears as mul- tilocular solid, semisolid, or cystic lesions with defnite Trichinosis is a biphasic disease. Te right larly with difuse and ring-enhancing parts around necrotic frontal lesion is space occupying and appears inhomogeneous zones underlining the destructive character of the disease (b). Neurotrichinosis seems to be related to marked lows a mild to moderate clinical course. Severe illness hypereosinophilia and shares similarities with the hy- occurs in 510% of cases which may be complicated pereosinophilic syndrome. Large, well-defned rounded hyperintense area with hypointense rim on T2-weighted image (a). Te le- sion appears hypointense on non-enhanced T1-weighted im- age (b) and shows minimal rim enhancement (c). Particulate wall-adherent substrate within the cyst that probably repre- sents daughter scolices and hydatid sand (ac). It is noteworthy meningoencephalitis, vascular (arteriolar) thrombosis, that the synchronicity of potentially life-threatening and small white and gray matter infarctions. Difuse white matter hypodensity of the cen- Clinical Presentation trum semiovale may also be present. Clinical microinfarctions at the border zones of major vascular symptoms are ofen delayed and may occur even years territories, in the periventricular white matter and the afer infection. Schistosomia- In another case report focal lesional contrast enhance- sis is associated with an increased risk for cancer of the ment has been described and bilateral difuse T2 hyper- target organs (bladder, colon, rectum). Usually the illness ings in neurotrichinosis and addressing the diferential regresses over several weeks, but the outcome may also diagnosis are lacking, however. Phytolacca dodecandra (plant) is Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, useful for prophylaxis. In endemic areas the availability Therapy of uncontaminated water and better sanitary facilities are important. Approximately 250300 million people are infected and a further 600 million are at risk for future Cerebral schistosomiasis causes a non-specifc granu- infections. Te of contrast enhancement on T1-weighted sequences, entry for the schistosoma cercaria is active percutane- which is a centrally linear enhancement surrounded by ous. Te adult parasites are harmless, but their fertilized Acknowledgement eggs are highly pathogenic. Te eggs are released into the venous system from where they drif to diferent or- I would like to thank Professor Rakesch K. Te lef-sided brain-stem lesion appears partially cystic and inhomogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted c images (c) Parasitic Infections 165 Further Reading Lucius R, Loos-Frank B (2008) Biology of parasites. Initial neuroimaging has Presentation, Therapy 177 to rule out infectious foci of the skull base such as 11. Te space of systemic diseases, such as sarcoidosis or vasculitis, between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater is the may involve the meninges. While bacterial and viral meningitis are supposed to exhibit enhancement that is thin and lin- ear, fungal meningitis and neoplastic infltration of the 11. A list of the potential causes of leptomeningeal enhancement is given in Table 11. Anatomically, the meninges consist of three layers: the Te pachymeninges (thick meninges) consist of the dura mater; the arachnoid mater; and the pia mater. Terefore, the pachymeninges can be seen Inflammatory Diseases of the Meninges 171 Table 11. Probable causes of predominant pachymeningeal contrast enhancement in neuroimaging etiology type of enhancement Remarks Intracranial hypotension, e. Tickening and increased contrast enhancement of the who had been surgically treated for an oligodendroglioma of the pachymeninges with efusion into the subdural space (arrows lef frontal lobe.

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Unfortunately generic 800mg aciclovir with visa, many patients may present late when their tumours are already fungating like this cheap aciclovir 200 mg fast delivery. One or more of these granular areas may be sufficiently obvious to be palpable as a cyst, and there may be A serous, dark or blood-stained nipple discharge may a clear discharge from the nipple; rarely, this is blood-stained. If a lump is palpable, it is more likely to be a Breast abscess may present by finding pus on aspiration, carcinoma. An organizing haematoma or fat necrosis may occur after trauma as fairly discrete mildly tender lumps. Other rarer causes are: Galactocele: a residual milk-containing cyst, the contents of Tuberculosis is less often seen in the breast than in the which may solidify. Intracystic papilliferous carcinoma: aspiration yields blood- Suspect tuberculosis if there is a sinus and the swelling and stained fluid, and does not make the cyst disappear entirely. The mass is painless, and may be attached to the skin or the muscles of the chest wall. Look for signs of tuberculosis aspiration yields only a little thick fluid, and does not make elsewhere. Cystadenoma phylloides: a rapidly growing benign giant fibroadenoma, which becomes partly necrotic and fluctuant. A carcinoma (usually squamous) may be ductal or lobular The skin over it may ulcerate, but is not infiltrated. It is a hard, painless, fixed mass often with tethering of the skin or attachment to pectoralis major, Hydatid cyst (15. It is indurated but smooth; aspiration may The skin is stretched, and may ulcerate; there are usually other produce pus. There may be several fibroadenomas in one or both Aspirate the cyst with a wide bore needle as completely as you breasts (24-2). The patient is If a lump remains after you have aspirated the cyst, almost always 15-45yrs, and usually 18-30yrs. A neurofibroma (rare) feels hard, like a fibroadenoma, but may be soft, and may be one of many similar tumours elsewhere (neurofibromatosis). If it is an obvious fibroadenoma, shell it out completely unless it is <1cm in diameter, when you can review it at 3-monthly intervals (24-5). If you are not sure but think it is benign, remove it completely together with a 2cm margin of tissue around the lump and send it for histology. B, introduce the closed biopsy on a small lump, especially if it is mobile; you may biopsy needle into the lesion, with an assisting steadying the lump. E, positions of trucut needle open & If there is a lump and a discharge from the nipple, closed. Otherwise do an Mammography needs special equipment where the breast is open biopsy; it is better to do this on the nodes because the squeezed between two plates and X-rayed; it is sometimes breast may not heal well. Try to screen women with a strong family history of breast cancer before the age of 40yrs, or contralateral breast cancer, If you suspect malignancy, try to get a diagnosis first to plan especially of the lobular type. Regional anaesthesia using lump is big enough and you can hold it firmly in the hand intercostal nerve blocks works well (but a pneumothorax may (24-3). A, if the lump is within 5-8cm of the nipple, make a circumareolar incision, not longer than the circumference of the areola. B, if the lump is further away make a curved circumferential incision over it, parallel to the areola. C, if the lump is deep in the breast, you may be able to use a submammary incision. E, if your histology services are good enough to justify taking a biopsy, make a radial incision within the area of a possible later mastectomy, so that you can excise the scar. If you are removing a benign lump from a removal of a suspicious lump: expose the lesion, but do not cut into it, and woman, try not to disfigure the breast or compromise future remove the lump with a small part of the surrounding breast. Close the cavity with interrupted sutures of absorbable suture on a half-circle needle. If the cavity is too large to be By a circumareolar incision (24-3A), remove a lump up to completely obliterated by sutures, and bleeding is troublesome 5cm from the nipple. This produces an obvious scar, but will be much more If there is a giant fibroadenoma (24-6), simple removal may aesthetic than a radial scar. Avoid a mastectomy unless the tumour is rom the underside, remove deep inferiorly placed lumps: fungating. If it only occupies part of the breast, you may this will be less easy than the circumareolar or circumferential be able to shell it out. Cut round the infra-lateral quadrant of the breast: where you can, the breast may surprisingly return to its normal in light-skinned women this follows a pigmented line. Hold the breast up while you make your incision in this line, and free the breast from the pectoral fascia. Grasp it with forceps, and then free it from its bed with a scalpel or curved scissors. Jasmine is effective if be discharged from the 16th week of pregnancy, and even you cannot get bromocriptine. The clear, or less often blood-stained discharge, due to an (plasma cell) mastitis, which is common in smokers. It can also present as a hard, tender swelling with redness of Or rarely, the overlying skin, which you can confuse with an acute breast (4) The discharge associated with fibroadenosis. At the start of the examination, do not palpate the or if the fluid is blood-stained, perform an excision biopsy. Operative Surgery A, carefully palpate all round the breast to find out which segment the Vol 1, Butterworth 2nd ed 1981 with kind permission discharge is coming from. B, lesion in the wall of a duct which might equally well be a duct adenoma or a carcinoma. C-D, pass a fine probe down the duct, and excise it with some of the surrounding tissue. Pass a fine probe or a hypodermic If both breasts are enlarged, with pitting oedema, suspect needle with a blunt end along the duct (24-7C).

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You may not be able to get the foot into the neutral position on the first occasion cheap 400mg aciclovir mastercard. Once the patient is walking with the knee fully extended purchase aciclovir 200mg otc, repeat the procedure and apply a further cast, until the foot will reach the This is the most common deformity in a child, and is neutral position with the leg extended. If you are Where serial casting is inadequate, with also a minor varus inexperienced, you will find serial casts very useful. The closed operation is simpler, In a child, tenotomy is contraindicated if: and there is less risk of infection, or keloid formation. Use a small tenotomy knife, or the improvised one If you have cut the whole Achilles tendon, do not be (32-17). It will almost always heal satisfactorily in the gown yourself, use gloves, and apply a tourniquet (3. Do this by pushing patient did not wear a calliper, or wore one without a the knife into the tendon from the medial side, in the line backstop (32-13B). If he fails to wear one initially, of its fibres, at the junction of the anterior third and the the deformity is sure to recur. Follow up carefully, posteriorly, until you feel the knife cutting very easily, so that you can decide about this. If you fracture the lower tibia because you have 2nd incision, push the knife into the tendon in the line of its manipulated it too vigorously, fit a cast. Use the lateral position, with the leg to (4),Do not try to divide the tight posterior capsule of the be operated on uppermost. This is not tightened in poliomyelitis, unless there is an associated varus Make a longitudinal incision over the lower of the leg, deformity, which must be corrected at open operation. Do not apply force to the You may see the small tendon of the plantaris (35-22I) distal tibia; you can easily break it. Make 2 incisions half way across the Achilles tendon: the If necessary, manipulate it again 2wks later. If there is any varus If the ankle does not reach the neutral position (90), deformity of the foot leave the lateral side intact. If there is check that the tendon has been divided properly, any valgus deformity, leave the medial side intact. If the ankle is still not fully corrected to 90, tendon to correct the deformity. If necessary, release the ankle on the same incision opposite the first one (32-18A,B). If you fail to put the foot into satisfactory dorsiflexion, make a longitudinal incision down the middle of the If the knee is stable, apply a well-padded below-knee tendon joining the two cuts. If this still does not correct the walking cast, with the foot near the maximum correction, position of the foot, dissect down to the posterior aspect of but not at the extreme limit of extension. Review a young capsule of the ankle joint transversely (32-18D), child in 3wks, and an older child or adult in 6wks. Pad the leg, apply a below-knee cast with the knee flexed to 90 and release the tourniquet. At the same time, the forefoot is adducted at its tarso-metatarsal joints, and the 1st metatarsal is plantarflexed to a greater degree than the 5th metatarsal (cavus). If the deformity is left to progress without correction, the navicular bone may be pulled medially, and sometimes even away from the front of the talus. D, cross-section at Manipulation and casting by the Ponseti method when level of mid-malleoli: (1) saphenous nerve and vein. Provide crutches, These may be helped but are often resistant to conservative and check the cast in 3wks. You need to use the Ponseti technique properly permanently, so that a child will be able to walk normally and carefully, but it has probably the highest cost-benefit in normal shoes, if you start treatment in the first days after ratio of any surgical procedure. Manipulation weekly and applying plaster casts for start before 9months of age, but may still correct 85% of 5 to 6wks is normally successful. A, the arrows show cavus, the high medial arch, due to pronation of the forefoot in relation to the hindfoot. B, correct cavus by supinating the forefoot with pressure against the head of the talus. You should avoid other operations which tend to produce C, cavus (the forefoot adducted at its tarso-metatarsal joints) scarring and a chronically painful foot, until at least 2yrs. E, correct adductus by You should aim to correct the components, cavus and gently abducting the forefoot whilst stabilizing the talus with your thumb and holding the lateral malleolus with your index finger. Distinguish between inversion & eversion at the ankle, and pronation & supination at the forefoot! F, leave the toes exposed removing plaster to the mtp joints dorsally, but leaving the plantar side as a support. I, apply a th 5 cast with the foot abducted 60-70 with respect to the front of the tibia. K, the Steenbeek brace: different sized boots, the materials needed to make the boot, and the final result. The adducted metatarsus has only a midfoot and no hindfoot contracture and is not a club foot Correct cavus by supinating the forefoot and making a normal longitudinal arch (32-20A, 32-24J) and correct adductus by abducting the forefoot in proper alignment with the hindfoot. So, make sure you can locate the head of the talus by first feeling for the lateral malleolus, and moving your thumb forward in front of the ankle mortice. The navicular (32-24J) is displaced medially to a position in front of the head of the talus, almost touching the medial malleolus. Gently abduct the forefoot, whilst stabilizing the head of the talus and holding the lateral malleolus, as far as you can without causing discomfort to the child. Hold this position with gentle pressure for 1min (32-20E) so that the big toe is almost straight, and apply a cast for 1wk. Continue further abduction, holding the position in the 2nd and 3rd casts, each for 1wk. Correct heel varus when you have corrected adductus, keeping the position in the 3rd and 4th casts (32-20F), again for 1wk. The purpose of the casting is to immobilize the contracted ligaments at the maximum stretch obtained after each manipulation. Apply the cast with plaster of Paris in 3-4 turns first around the toes (32-21A), and continue up the leg, adding a little tension above the heel (32-21B).

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Sedoheptulose 1 cheap aciclovir 200mg on-line,7-bisphosphate undergoes dephosphorylation to form sedoheptulose 7-phosphate discount 400mg aciclovir visa. Ribose 5-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate molecules are transformed to ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P). These triose phosphate molecules combine to form hexose phosphates, which are used to form sucrose. We already 3 learnt that photosynthesis has two types of reactions light reactions and dark reactions (Calvin cycle). In C plants both light reactions and 3 dark reactions occur in mesophyll cells, whereas in C4plants, the mechanism of photosynthesis requires two types of photosynthetic cells mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells. One takes place in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells and another in chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells. The first step involves the carboxylation of phosphoenol pyruvic acid in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells to form a 4C compound, oxaloacetic acid. This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase Phosphoric acid 2. The pyruvic acid produced in step (3) is transferred to the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells where it is phosphorylated to regenerate phosphoenolpyruvic acid. Examples of C plants are rice, Examples of C plants are maize, 3 4 wheat and potato. But in certain green plants, there are two distinct types of respiration photorespiration and dark respiration. Respiration that occurs in photosynthetic tissues in the presence of light and results in increased rate of carbondioxide evolution is called photorespiration or light respiration. Photorespiration involves three organelles chloroplasts, peroxisomes and mitochondria. From the chloroplast, the glycolic acid diffuses into the peroxisome where it is oxidised to glyoxalic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The aminoacid serine is taken to peroxisome where, it is converted into hydroxy pyruvic acid. Photorespiration is also known as photosynthetic carbon oxidation cycle or C2 cycle. However, photorespiration utilizes part of the light energy and saves the plant from photooxidative damage. Difference between photorespiration and dark respiration Photorespiration Dark respiration 1. It takes place only in photo - It takes place in all living cells in the synthetic cells in the presence mitochondria. It is the function of chloroplast, It is the function of mitochondria peroxisomes and mitochondria. Factors affecting photosynthesis Photosynthesis is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. According to Blackmann who postulated Law of Limiting factor in 1905, photosynthesis is limited by slowest step of the most limiting factor in the pathway. This means that at a given time, only the factor that is most limiting among all will determine the rate of photosynthesis. Light between the wavelength of 400nm to 700nm is most effective for photosynthesis and this light is called photosynthetically active radiation. Photochemical reactions and dark reactions of photosynthesis respond differently to temperature. Photochemical reactions in the thylakoid remain unharmed by temperature, whereas the enzymatic dark reactions get influenced adversely. Since, nitrogen is a basic constituent of chlorophyll and all enzymes involved in dark reactions, any reduction in nitrogen supply to plants has an adverse effect on photosynthesis. The photosynthetic enzymes also get inactivated resulting in reduced rate of photosynthesis. A few branches of Hydrilla are kept in a beaker containing pond water in which a small amount of sodium bicarbonate is dissolved. The branches are covered with a glass funnel and a test tube full of water is kept inverted over the Test tube stem of the funnel as shown in the figure. The gas Beaker bubbles may be observed from the ends of hydrilla branches kept within the glass funnel. These gas bubbles are collected Water in the test tube by the downward displacement of water. When a burnt splinter is Hydrilla taken near the mouth of the tube, it glows brightly and proves that the gas is oxygen. Ganongs light screen experiment Ganongs light screen experiment demonstrates that light is essential for photosynthesis. When a pot plant is kept for 48 hours in dark room, the leaves become free from starch. Ganongs light screen is a clip like instrument with a tin foil disc having a star shaped opening through which light can enter. The advantage of light screen is to allow free ventilation and at the same time it cuts off light. The light screen is fixed to a leaf of the destarched potted plant as shown in the figure. The Ganongs light screen experiment demonstrates that light is essential for photosynthesis. Mode of nutrition Autotrophic nutrition Most of the green plants are self- dependent, because they synthesize their own food materials by photosynthesis. Epiphytic plants are not parasitic on these trees, but they only make use of the place to grow. Clinging roots fix the epiphytes to the bark of the tree and also absorb the little nutrients found in the debris accumulating on the bark. These roots are usually green and covered by a spongy tissue called velamen which absorbs the moisture in the air as well as rain water. Heterotrophic nutrition Due to lack of chlorophyll or nitrogen defeciency, some plants have to depend on other plants, insects or dead organic matter for their food. Heterotrophic plants are grouped into saprophytic, parasitic and insectivorous plants. Cuscuta Tentacle Parasite Haustorium Host stem Partial parasite Insectivorous plant eg. Parasitic plants Some plants get their nourishments from other living plants or animals.

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