By O. Dudley. Harvard University.

The ethanolic extracts (1mg/ml to 8mg/ml) of Eclipta alba (Kyeik-hman) leaves discount sulfasalazine 500 mg with amex, Butea monosperma (Pauk-pwint) flowers discount sulfasalazine 500mg on-line, and Cassia fistula (Ngu) bark were tested for the presence of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen like activity. Thus isobutrin and catechin could be identified as active compounds with potential use in the management of hepatitis B infection. Although some clinical data exists on the use of catechin in management of hepatitis B infection, data on the use of Cassia fistula is limited and needs to be explored. In-vitro assessment of the anti-hepatitis B viral activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants and identification of active principle from bioassay guided fractions. Extraction, isolation, solvent partition, successive column chromato-graphic separation on silica gel and crystallization provided β-sitosterol (I) (0. All isolated constitutents were identified by melting point determination and spectroscopic measurements. Indeed, ethanolic crude extract of “Ngu” bark may be more effective than “Pan-kha”. Emetine dihydrochloride, metronidazole and diodo- hydroxy-quinoline were used as control drugs. Berberine chloride, the crude extracts of Brucea sumatrana and Coptis teeta, and the total alkaloids of Holarrhana antidysenterica was amoebicidal at concentration of 20, 20, 125 and 250 micrograms per milliliter respectively. In-vitro parasite clearance of herbal antimalarial traditional medicine compound for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum worsen the global malaria situation. One of the herbal antimalarial traditional medicine compounds which contains the extracts of Dichroa febrifuga, Coptis teeta and Qinghao leaf extract. Three hundred and fify-three clinically suspected malaria patients attending the outpatient clinics of Vector Borne Disease Control Centre, Gyogone, Insein were tested during the studied period of one year. Among those patients, 31 isolates met the selection criteria for in vitro drug sensitivity testing. Out of 31 isolates tested, 20 isolates were successfully grown in in vitro test culture for the traditional medicine compound and 22 isolates were successfully grown for those of chloroquine and mefloquine. These parasite inhibition datas indicated that the traditional medicine compound has definite in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. But the efficacy of traditional medicine compound may be as good as or even better than the two other drugs tested in parallel because of its nature of three herbal drugs combination. In-vitro screening of antithelminthic effect of some indigenous plant extracts on Ascaris suum. The in vitro activity of the extracts of Butea frondosa (Pauk) and Quisqualis indica (Da-we-hmaing) on Ascaris suum according to the method of Goodwin (1958) was investigated. L-tetramisole, Oil of Chenopodium and Piperazine hexadrate served as control drugs. The water soluble extracts of Butea frondosa seeds have a paralyzing effect on Ascaris suum in vitro at a concentration of 4mg/ml within 1. The alcoholic extract of Quisqualis indica produced decreased activity at a concentration of 4mg/ml within 5 hours. In-vitro sensitivity of Azadirachta indica extracts on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Different parts and various extracts of Azadirachta indica were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in-vitro. Among watery, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf bark, stem and seed of Azadirachta indica-watery extracts showed least anti Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where as ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of bark, stem and seed have some inhibition action on Tubercle bacilli. Detail study of seed extracts showed that ethanol extracts have been action with minium inhibitory concentration of 10μg/ml. In-vitro testing of various indeginous plant extracts on human pathogenic bacteria. Differentt parts and different extracts of twenty-six plants were tested against fourteen pathogenic bacteria for general screening. Out of these, thirteen plants showed an inhibitory activity against at least one test-bacterium, though there was a variation regarding the size of zones of inhibition. The thirteen plants showing zones of inhibition were Artemisia vulgaris, Brucea sumatrana, Coptis teeta, Yin-bya (unindentified yet), Euphorbia hirta, Hiptage madablota, Lawsonia alba, Myristica fragrans, Pithecellobium dulce, Pterocarpus santalinus, Quisqualis indica, Stephenia hernandifolia, Symplocos santalinus, and Symplocos paniculata. The antimicrobial spectrum and bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect of the plants were also determined. Aye Myint Sein; Thaw Zin; Khin Chit; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Hla Myint, Saw; Moe Moe Aye; Yu Yu Nwe. Acute diarrhea is commonly encountered in developing countries, where traditional herbal remedies are often sought for symptomatic relief. Thus, identifying and evaluation reputed plants used for diarrhea, in terms of efficacy and safety becomes a necessity. With the object to determine the antidiarrheal efficacy of Seik-phoo (Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb. The watery extracts, in serial dilutions of 3,6 and 12g/kg of Seik-phoo, were administered to 3 groups of mice induced by castor oil to produce experimental diaatthea and the efficacy compard with a nagetive control receiving normal saline and a positive control receiving standard antidiarrheal drug, loparamide. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by 1) effect on castor oil-induced diarrhea (number/type of stools passed), 2) effect on castor oil induced enteropooling (weight/volume of fluid accumulation), and 3) effect on castor oil induced small intestinal transit (passage of charcoal meal). Seik-phoo was found to possessed marked anti-diarrheal effect comparable to loparpmide, as seen by a significant delay in onset on diarrhea in first hour and a market reduction in the number of diarrhea stools (12. In addition, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts showed marked antimicrobial activity against E. The present study signified the antidiarrheal effect of the extracts and their potential usefulness in a wide range of diarrheal states, whether due to disorders of transit (e. In-vivo study of the prophylactic value of some plants against experimentally-induced infection of closed and open wounds. Coptis teeta, (Khan-tauk), Lawsonia alba (Dan-gyi), Quisqualis indica (Dawei-hmaing), and Stephania hernandifolia (Taung-kya-kyet-thway) were tested for in vivo closed wound infected with Staphylococcus aureus Viable bacterial count, tensile strength and tissue collagen content were measured and compared with three control groups, one with parrafin alone treatment, another with sterile gauze alone and with classical drug tetracycline ointment. Influence of cultural characteristics on the utilization of traditional medicine and its impact upon health care in Myanmar.

High incubation temperatures (early hatch) sulfasalazine 500 mg without prescription, 40% of a chick’s total body weight and should be poor gas exchange (may occur with high altitude or surgically removed in conjunction with the admini- high humidity) and egg infections are thought to be stration of broad-spectrum antibiotics generic sulfasalazine 500 mg without prescription. The cause can best be determined by carefully To remove the yolk sac, the chick is placed in dorsal evaluating the incubation and hatching parameters recumbency and the abdomen is prepared for sur- and culturing affected embryos. The skin is incised circumferentially around the yolk can be placed in the abdomen, the umbilicus umbilicus and the incision is extended transversely covered with antibiotic ointment and gauze, and the at the three and nine o’clock positions to the lateral abdomen wrapped with self-adherent bandage. Sys- distance required to allow easy removal of the intact temic antibiotic therapy should be initiated immedi- yolk sac. If a large quantity of the yolk sac is external- sponding pattern being careful to not damage the ized or the umbilicus has sealed (Color 48. Weight gain is a good indicator of a healthy chick, and weight loss often precedes clinical signs of disease. These birds will continue to lose weight beyond the Exposure of chicks to infectious agents can be reduced by normal weight loss seen the first four to five days restricting access of all visitors, utilizing sound hygiene pro- after hatch. Congenital de- the intestine to allow the stalk to be transected and fects in chicks may be attributable to genetics, the the yolk sac to be removed. The body wall is closed effects of nutritional deficiencies or teratogens in the with a monofilament, absorbable material in a sim- laying hen, or may be caused by inadequate egg ple continuous pattern. Some chicks begin to eat and gain Cloacal Prolapse weight within a day or two of surgery while others Prolapse of the cloaca may occur in neonates. This require nutritional support by tube-feeding for sev- condition is most common in birds less than four eral days before they resume normal growth. Mild cases can be resolved by clude albinism, leucism, melanism, pied, prog- simply replacing the cloaca through the vent. More nathism, crossed beak, choanal atresia, micro- severe cases require retention sutures for one to phthalmia, blindness, meningocele, crooked neck, three days (see Chapter 41). Young chicks require a stable social group that might include a parental figure in the form of a natural par- ent, older counselor chick or a hu- man substitute. Management systems in which chicks are transferred through a se- ries of pens are disturbing to the birds. Relocating or mixing chicks from different groups may alter the social structure causing some chicks to be harassed or rejected by domi- nant birds. These abandoned chicks may exhibit neurotic pacing, inade- quate or inappropriate ingestion be- havior, intermittent diarrhea and stunting. Chicks shielded from con- stant human activity become flighty, adjust poorly to captivity and may mature to become substandard pro- ducers. Environmental and social stability, combined with the taming of young chicks through continuous human presence, are among the most important components of a suc- cessful ostrich management pro- gram. Gradually introducing chicks to a new area or situation will help maintain the group stability and re- duce stress. These structures are ligated close to the small intestines (courtesy of Rich- ard Cambre, reprinted with permission J Zoo Wildl Med 23:1992). The distal portion of the main diets may cause an unacceptable level of stress on the toe is rotated off of the centerline (Figure 48. Weight gains should be lin- In poultry, riboflavin deficiencies cause damage of ear, and several days of excess weight gain may the peripheral nerve trunks and paralysis resulting induce bone deformities. Chicks are best raised on6 in curling of the toes and leg weakness; however, in moderate protein diets (20%) in large pastures with ostriches, rolled toe syndrome seems to be caused by plenty of room for exercise. Empirical observation genetic abnormalities, incubation problems or inap- suggests that the incidence of leg deformities is re- propriate substrates during the first week of life duced with increased exercise. Brooder pens sponds to usage, and it is hypothesized that exercise with soft surfaces or wire mesh allow the toe to flex increases circulation to the developing bone and en- and roll medially. Leg deformities in poultry are associated with defi- Rolled toe deformities may be corrected with a vari- ciencies in manganese, zinc, choline, biotin, folic acid, ety of simple splints, but become more difficult to niacin and pyridoxine, and the involvement of these resolve as the chick matures. A splint can be applied nutrients in certain leg deformities of ratites is likely. A tongue depres- tion often inhibit the appropriate absorption and sor can be incorporated into the plantar surface of the utilization of feeds and induce secondary skeletal toe on the final wrap to provide extra stability. Treatment of afflicted individuals can be attempted with a variety of external splints and slings or by Rotational and angular deformities of the legs are a derotational osteotomy and fracture repair, but the common problem in the rearing of all ratite chicks prognosis is exceptionally poor. Re-rotation following and should be viewed primarily as a management surgery commonly occurs. This condition occurs when external bracing coupled with an immediate de- one or both legs rotate laterally at the distal tibiotar- crease in protein content of the feed may be helpful sus causing the toe to point laterally (Color 48. It is best to apply bracing at Chicks from a particular breeding pair may have a night during roost time and to release the chick with high incidence of deformities under conditions in the flockmates during the day. It is stressful for which other chicks are raised satisfactorily, implicat- chicks to be alone and, with a rotational problem ing genetics as a contributing factor. In commer- slick and slippery surfaces have severe leg deform- cial ratite production, such techniques are economi- ities. Classical rickets is often seen, with elongated cally unfeasible and individuals with marked de- metaphyses of the long bones and ricketic rosaries formities should be condemned. These chicks respond favorably to adjusted dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus and Spraddle Leg vitamin D3. Leg problems associated with inade- Spraddle leg is caused by a deformity in the quate or imbalanced levels of these compounds are coxofemoral joint that prevents the legs from being exacerbated by high levels of dietary protein. This condition, usually associated with edematous chicks, is manifested by the legs being Leg deformities are more common in birds that are directed laterally resulting in the inability to stand. An legs together is usually effective if initiated immedi- injury of the growth plate (nutritional, traumatic) ately after the problem is noted. The problem can be will result in a rapid bending or twisting of the bone prevented by ensuring proper weight loss of the egg due to the rapid growth rates. Ruptured or Slipped Achilles Tendon Rupture or slippage of the Achilles tendon may occur secondary to valgus or varus deformities of the leg. Feed analysis, feeding frequency, exercise programs, con- current rotations or angular deformities are areas to evaluate. These infec- tions may originate from traumatic inju- ries or can be secondary to septicemia. All angular limb deformities should be considered an indication of management-related problems that need correcting (courtesy of Louise Bauck). Samberg Y, et al: Newcastle disease the thoraco-abdominal viscera in the Comp Anim Pract 1:26-30, 1987. Levy A, et al: Reference blood chemi- (ed): Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Medicine 2nd ed.

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The most serious side effect for Evista is the formation of clots that can block veins or lodge in the lungs or heart purchase sulfasalazine 500 mg online. Though these side effects occur in only about 1 out of 100 patients treated with Evista cheap 500 mg sulfasalazine otc, women treated with Evista were more than twice as likely to develop clot-related disease than women taking a placebo. More common side effects of Evista include difficult, burning, or painful urination; fever; increased rate of infections; leg cramps; skin rash; swelling of hands, ankles, or feet; and vaginal itching. Less common side effects include body aches and pains, congestion in the lungs, decreased vision or other changes in vision, diarrhea, difficulty breathing, hoarseness, loss of appetite, nausea, trouble swallowing, and weakness. Parathyroid Hormone Parathyroid hormone is given by injection under the skin once per day. Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoblastic bone formation and increases bone density in women with osteoporosis. Nineteen months of teriparatide treatment (20 mcg per day) increased bone density in the spine by 8. It is interesting to note that the process of injecting a placebo increased bone density by 3. Calcitonin Calcitonin is approved for postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment but not for prevention. Calcitonin spray may also be helpful in women with osteoporosis in that it can reduce bone pain from vertebral compression fractures. Lifestyle Smoking Smoking tends to cause more rapid bone loss and lower bone mass. Women who smoke also tend to experience menopause two years earlier than nonsmokers. One hour of moderate physical activity three times a week has been shown to prevent bone loss and actually increase bone mass in postmenopausal women. Strength-training exercises can also be simple, with hand weights or resistance bands that can be used at home. Sarcopenia is linked not just to a significantly shorter life expectancy but also to decreased vitality, poor balance and gait speed, and increased falls and fractures. Just as we want to build bone while we are young to help us preserve it longer through the aging process, the same is true for muscle: we want to reach peak muscle mass while we are young. And just as it is important to engage in dietary, lifestyle, and exercise strategies to fight osteoporosis in our later years, we must do the same to fight sarcopenia. For more information on sarcopenia and what you can do about it, see the discussion in the chapter “Longevity and Life Extension. These findings indicate that the decreased incidence of osteoporosis in vegetarians is due not to increased initial bone mass but rather to decreased bone loss. Several factors are probably responsible for the decrease in bone loss observed in vegetarians. The most important of these is probably a lowered intake of protein coupled with an alkaline-ash diet. A high-protein diet or a diet high in phosphates is associated with increased excretion of calcium in the urine, as the calcium is used to buffer the extra acid this type of diet generates in the body. Raising daily protein intake from 47 to 142 g doubles the excretion of calcium in the urine. When the diet induces acidosis—which is typical of a diet high in protein and salt—the body maintains pH by buffering with calcium, which is taken from the bones. There is still some validity to these beliefs, but the situation is a bit more complicated. The biggest detriment to calcium absorption in regard to stomach acid production may be the use of acid-blocking drugs. Although decreased gastric acidity is seen in as many as 40% of postmenopausal women,71 a critical review of available studies indicates that the effects of increased gastric pH are apparent only when poorly soluble calcium salts (such as calcium carbonate) are taken on an empty stomach. About 45% of the calcium is absorbed from calcium citrate in patients with reduced stomach acid. That said, there is an association between increased risk of hip fractures and long-term use of proton-pump-inhibiting acid-blocking drugs such as these:74,75 • Omeprazole (Losec, Prilosec, Zegerid, Ocid, Lomac, Omepral, Omez) • Lansoprazole (Prevacid, Zoton, Monolitum, Inhibitol, Levant, Lupizole) • Dexlansoprazole (Kapidex, Dexilant) • Esomeprazole (Nexium, Esotrex) • Pantoprazole (Protonix, Somac, Pantoloc, Pantozol, Zurcal, Zentro, Pan, Controloc) • Rabeprazole (Zechin, Rabecid, Nzole-D, AcipHex, Pariet, Rabeloc. Soft Drinks Soft drinks are a major contributor to osteoporosis for those who drink them, as they are high in phosphates (phosphoric acid) and sugar. The United States ranks first among countries for soft drink consumption, with an average per capita consumption of approximately 15 oz per day. The link between soft drink consumption and bone loss is going to be even more significant as children practically weaned on soft drinks reach adulthood. Soft drink consumption among children poses a significant risk factor for impaired calcification of growing bones. The severely negative effect that soft drinks have on bone formation in children was clearly demonstrated in a study that compared 57 children with low blood calcium, age 18 months to 14 years, with 171 matched controls with normal calcium levels. For all 228 children, a significant inverse correlation between serum calcium level and the amount of soft drinks consumed each week was found. These foods are a rich source of a broad range of vitamins and minerals that are important to maintaining healthy bones, including calcium, vitamin K1, and boron. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone or phytoquinone) is the form of vitamin K that is found in plants. A function of vitamin K that is often overlooked is its role in converting inactive osteocalcin (the major noncollagen protein in bone) to its active form. Osteocalcin’s role is to anchor calcium molecules and hold them in place within the bone. In one study, very low blood levels of vitamin K1 were found in patients who had fractures due to osteoporosis. In the Nurses Health Study a low dietary intake of vitamin K was linked to increased hip fractures. Since vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables, it may be one of the key protective factors against osteoporosis in a vegetarian diet. The richest sources of vitamin K1 are dark green leafy vegetables (such as broccoli, lettuce, cabbage, and spinach) and green tea. In addition to vitamin K1, the high levels of many minerals in green leafy vegetables, such as calcium and boron, may also be responsible for this protective effect. In one study, supplementing the diet of postmenopausal women with 3 mg boron per day reduced urinary calcium excretion by 44% and dramatically increased levels of 17-beta-estradiol, the most biologically active estrogen.

In vivo study cheap 500 mg sulfasalazine free shipping, there was dose-dependent reduction in castor oil-induced diarrhea in all doses (i purchase 500mg sulfasalazine visa. Both extracts of Lin-ne cause relaxation of intestinal smooth muscle by as yet unknown mechanisms. Paper chromatographic analysis of free amino acids in etiolated seedlings of Cicer aritenum and Vigna catjang Walp. Khin Swe Win; Myint Myint Gyi; Yi Yi Win (2); Khin Than Swe; Than Aung, Maung; Thant Zin, Maung; Khin Latt, Maung; Thet Htun, Maung; Mya Mya Thein; Thein Aung. Analysis was qualitative only and the amino acids separated by two dimensional paper chromatography. The morphological and taxonomical studies on both vegetative and reproductive parts have also been carried out. The genus Crinum is reported to contain an alkaloidal compound, lycorine, as one of the major constituent. For this reason, extraction and isolation of lycorine has been attempted from bulb of Crinum asiaticum Linn. Isolation of L-Dopa from the seeds of both the species were carried out by two methods. Investigation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in fruit trichomes was also attempted but no serotonin was detected. In this study Taw-kyet-thun, which is commonly known as Indian Squill was studied taxonomically and identified as Urginea indica Kunth. Histological characters and pharmacognostic aspects of the plant were investigated. The R values corresponded to authentic fructose andf galactose and this was confirmed by osazone test. Such a flavonoid compound could not be identified due to lack of reference compound. The presence of steroidal substance was also detected in ethyl acetate-soluble substance obtained from methanolic concentrate which was eluted from 50. The presence of a scillaren-like substance was detected by specific colour reaction test but the amount was too small for further characterization. A variety of mustard (Mon-hnyin) belonging to the family Brassicaceae, has been commonly appreciated as salad and vegetables since many years ago. Nowadays those species are preferably accepted as medicinal and health-foods claiming for various bioactivities. In Myanmar, a mustard species namely Ye- mon-hnyin (a7rkefnif;), which is abundantly available in Shan State is becoming popular and vastly used by people. This local plant, Ye-mon-hnyin which is one of the mustard species was botanically identified and confirmed to be Nasturtium officinale R. Its habit, morphological and histological characters were systematically documented in this thesis for the plant authenticity purpose. Physicochemical and phytochemical studies were also conducted by using reference analytical procedures chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. All of physicochemical data determined in this work were documented in Myanmar Herbal Pharmacopoeia Monograph presented in this research. Expressed juice from fresh specimen and aqueous, ethanol (50%) and ethanol (95%) extracts from dried powder were tested with the various dose of 3, 6 and 12g/kg for toxicity and 3 and 6g/kg for laxative activity respectively. Laxative activity was evaluated by measurement of frequency and weight of stool after oral administration of test extracts. At the dose of 6g/kg, aqueous extract showed statistically significant activity at 0. It can be concluded that this plant possesses laxative activity and practically non-toxic on mice. In Myanmar, it is often planted for the edible stems, leaves and also some medicinal values although they are not cultivated plant species. The morphological and taxonomical aspects of this plant have been studied and identified in the Department of Botany, University of Yangon. The microscopical characters of the whole plant and examination of powdered drugs were carried out for a perfect standardization of drugs. In microscopical study, the cells of lower and upper lamina are irregular, wavy anticlinal walls and abundant anomocytic stomata types of lower surface than upper one were found. In tranverse section of lamina, collateral type vascular bundle and finely oil dotted glands in mesophyll tissues were observed distinctly. In the surface view of stem, multicellular uniseriate trichomespresented and chloroplasts with anomocytic type of stomata were found. The collected plants were dried, powdered and stored in an air tight bottle for phytochemical and physicochemical observations. The preliminary phytochemical examination was carried out to examine the chemical constituents. This examination indicated that the presence of saponins, carbohydrate, tannin, glycoside, alkaloid, terpenoid, flavonoid, starch and phenolic compound. In physicochemical observation, the results indicated that dry powders of the whole plant were most soluble in water and moderately soluble in other solvents. Isolation of chemical constituents of the plant extract was carried out by silica gel column chromatography method. In microbial test, the results showed that effective activities on the microbes were found in extracts of acetone, methanol and ethanol. Various solvent extracts of plant and isolated compounds (diterpene, lupeol, and stigmasterol) were tested against different microorganism for their antimicrobial activity by using agar well diffusion method. The isolated compounds were active against on Bacillus pumalis, Candida albican, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugonisa and Eschrichia coli. These extracts did not show any toxic effect at the maximum permission doses of 12g/kg body weight. There is a well known tree (Kan-zaw) near Southern Myanmar, the seeds of which are medicinal and is used by local people. The oil is the main components present in the seeds of this plant and it is used as a major remedy in traditional medicine for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer, anti-peptic ulcer, paralysis, bronchitis, rash, chest pain, injury, sores and various other ailments.