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But when they raised mice serotonin levels buy actos 30mg free shipping, and it appears that behavioral with normal serotonin receptors and later strategies discount actos 30 mg fast delivery, such as those described in this book, depleted the mice of serotonin when they had also alter brain chemistry in productive ways. Early mastery experiences When a hungry or uncomfortable baby cries out and parents respond by feeding or comforting, the baby experiences a beginning sense of mastery. This early opportunity can be repeated thousands of times over the next few years in various ways. For example, the toddler discovers how to use language to make requests that then get rewarded. If parents respond unpredictably and chaotically to an infant’s attempts to control his or her environment, anxiety is likely to increase. So to decrease the probability of anxiety, responding predictably to young children is imperative. For young infants, parents should respond with rea- sonable consistency to most of their distress. Later, predictability is still important but should occur only to age-appropriate distress or requests. In other words, you wouldn’t want to reinforce a 2-year-old’s temper tantrums by caving in. As your children grow older, you should provide as many opportunities as possible for them to experience a feeling of mastery. You can do this by ✓ Involving them in sports ✓ Interesting them in hobbies that require some skill ✓ Playing games of skill, such as puzzles or Scrabble Chapter 20: Helping Kids Conquer Anxiety 289 ✓ Making sure that they have the chance to experience success at school and getting immediate help if they start struggling with their studies ✓ Training them to have good manners and social skills Fine-tuning emotions One of the most important tasks of childhood consists of learning how to control emotions, tolerate frustration, and delay gratification. However, with increasing age, the world tends to look unfavorably upon those who demand instant gratification and rejects those who can’t keep a reasonable lid on their emotional outbursts. Helping children express emotions without letting them run out of control involves a few basic steps: ✓ Validate your children’s emotions. In other words, you don’t want to say, “You shouldn’t be scared,” or, worse, “You’re not really afraid. If you try to solve all their problems or keep them from all worries and danger, you’re doing more harm than good. The following list of children’s fears shows that children experience fears that are often similar to those that adults experience: ✓ Airplanes ✓ Being alone ✓ Dogs ✓ Heights ✓ Rodents ✓ Snakes ✓ Spiders and insects ✓ Thunder and lightning If you want to prevent your children from acquiring one of these common pho- bias, you can inoculate them. You do that by providing safe interactions with the potentially feared event or object — prior to any fear developing. Try the following activities: ✓ Take your kids to a museum or zoo that offers hands-on experiences with snakes and insects. For example, studies have shown that children bitten by dogs don’t develop a phobia as readily if they have had past, positive experiences with dogs. The more experiences you provide your children with, the better their chances are of growing up without phobias. If you’re somewhat phobic yourself, try not to make faces or get too squea- mish when you inoculate your kids against phobias. Taking precautions via parenting style Parents can set children up to develop an anxiety disorder, or parents can help to prevent anxiety, depending on their parenting style: Chapter 20: Helping Kids Conquer Anxiety 291 ✓ Permissive parents engage with their kids and show concern and caring. But permissive parents hate confrontation, and they abhor seeing their kids feel bad. Therefore, they set low expectations for their children, and they don’t push them to act mature or try new things. They control every detail of their children’s lives and tend to be overly structured and hostile. They try to help their kids understand the reasons behind their expectations for good behavior, although they don’t spend a whole lot of time reasoning, or debating, with their kids. Keep reading for more details about how each of these parenting styles affects a child’s anxiety level. Permissive and authoritarian parenting Both the permissive and the authoritarian types of parents fuel anxiety in children. Nancy’s mother hugs her, strokes her hair, and tells her, “Everything will be okay now that Mommy’s here. Authoritative parenting A different kind of parenting can help your kids deal with anxiety better. They validate their children’s feelings of anxiety but urge them to deal with them. Using Nancy’s story again, the following demonstrates how authoritative parents would deal with Nancy’s anxieties. They felt a bit guilty for letting her cry but realized that Nancy needs to learn that she can handle a little anxiety on her own. If that doesn’t happen after four or five nights in a row, you may need to consult a professional. Helicopter parenting The term helicopter parenting has gained popu- consequences of their own behavior and mis- larity in the past decade. Some of these parents even write hovering over you, following you throughout their kids’ college papers for them. Thus, a helicopter parent will complain to tions of their kids, unlike permissive parents. The problem with both It’s bad enough when helicopter parents hover types of parents is that they fail to teach their in this manner during elementary school. Multiple factors probably went into making your kid anxious (for more information, read Chapter 3). And you probably weren’t able to read this book prior to your child developing anxiety, so you didn’t know what you could do to prevent it. Helping yourself first If you’ve traveled on a commercial flight, you’ve probably heard flight atten- dants instruct you about how to deal with the oxygen masks should they drop down. That’s because if you don’t help yourself first, you won’t be in any con- dition to help your child. Children learn many of their emotional responses by observing their parents; it makes sense that anxious parents more often end up with anxious children. The nice part of getting rid of your own anxiety first is that this is likely to help your children, as well as give you the resources for assisting with their worries.
Information on cultural compe- ment providers pro- tence and diversity is available at W eb sites of ongoing training discount actos 30 mg online. Sterling and col- urineî to describe an unsatisfactory urine drug leagues (2001) noted the existence of ìequivocal test (ìpositive testî is less judgmental) buy actos 45mg without a prescription. Staff findings of the effect that therapist and patient should avoid terms suggesting the criminal similarity plays in treatment outcomeî (p. The consen- Federal and State resources are available for sus panel believes that employing treatment programs seeking literature in languages other professionals and support staff who are in than English. Community colleges, universities, recovery also adds valuable perspectives to and other institutions or agencies might assist treatment and provides role models for in translating forms and pamphlets. State regulations may estab- lish a minimum abstinence period before an Flexibility in thinking, behavior, and attitudes. Staff biases, are not judgmental, and do not have members who are in recovery and their col- punitive attitudes toward patients (Bell 2000). At least Staff Retention one study has associated such attitudes with Retaining staff is important for several reasons: lower rates of patient retention and poorer patient outcomes (Caplehorn et al. Staff members can experience permitting staff members to attend offsite burnout when they work in isolation with training during work hours. Managers should take concrete steps ï Encourage professional development by to retain staff, including the following: supporting staff certifications. Even the most ï Offer routine praise and recognition for staff professional, committed counselor struggles contributions and achievements. Staff members usually feel less isolated and overwhelmed Training when a team makes treatment decisions. W hen a lack of cohesion exists, staff members Training should be offered for all staff mem- risk burnout, disillusionment, or cynicism. A bers, including secretaries, nurses, counselors, well-coordinated team also reduces the level supervisors, and managers, to ensure a strong of intrastaff disagreements about patient care knowledge base so that staff members do their and decreases the likelihood of ìstaff split- best and to affirm that all staff members are ting,î when patients pit staff members against valued members of the treatment team. Managers should sional staff members acquire education credits hold regular staff meetings. Staff cooperation to maintain their licensure by offering onsite also can be fostered through training and training, collaborating with other agencies for retreats. The program director or manager reciprocal training, or paying for educational should mediate disputes among staff members. One way to address negative staff Federal and State attitudes is to include successful patients in agencies and profes- training (Bell 2000). Training should ensure that staff events and resource dards require members are knowledgeable about drug materials abuse trends in the community. Staff members should have allow staff from access to generic skills training such as crisis smaller programs to attend their sessions. The importance ing organizations, such as the Association for of emphasizing sensitivity to patient needs Addiction Professionals, and professional should be reviewed periodically. A program physician might members, often the first to speak with patients, educate staff members about the etiology play an important role. A random-callback policy Control Plans avoids patient complaints of being unfairly Federal opioid treatment standards state that ìpicked onî by staff members. All scheduled that patients can substances should be accounted for rigorously the possibility of store medications and inventoried continuously. All from receipt through dispensing and measured take-home medica- at the beginning and end of each workday. W ithin the dispensary, remains misunderstood even among some employees should open the safe or work with health care professionals. Some treatment Transition in Federal oversight of substance providers have overcome community opposi- abuse treatment from the U. Having ade- Children and Family Services, Joint quate onsite staff is equally important in avoid- Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare ing and resolving community problems. Glezen Organizations, National Commission for and Lowery (1999) provide other practical Correctional Health Care, State of Missouri guidelines for addressing community concerns Department of Mental Health Division of about substance abuse treatment facilities. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, and W ashington Community opposition can be triggered when State Department of Social and Health Services community groups believe that they have been Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuseó informed or consulted insufficiently. The relations with the payer community (Edmunds availability of public transportation is impor- et al. Adding designed, and operated in accordance with alternative care models and longer acting accreditation standards, Federal guidelines, pharmacotherapies to the services continuum and State and local licensing, approval, and can decrease loitering, illicit transactions, ille- operating requirements. Staff and patients from the parent organizationís community should be part of a multifaceted, proactive effort relations department. Although program contacts w ith com m unity activities differ in specificity and scope, a Personal contact with community leaders per- community relations plan should address the mits open dialog, information sharing, and dis- following: cussion of community developments, needs, and problems. Occasional becoming increasingly instrumental in empow- press releases can ering patients as active participants in public community notify the public relations, community outreach, and program about specific support initiatives and in local, State, and services demon- services, activities, national community education efforts. Staff members with community improvement and and the general development expertise can support other public. A program organizations in advocacy, promotional, and counter negative support efforts. Consenting patients and staff can professional journals, sponsoring or research organize projects such as community cleanups institutions, provider coalitions, advocacy and neighborhood patrols. Such affilia- Improvement Exchange tions augment community relations efforts ï W hite House Office of National Drug Control through increased professional education and Policy (www. These forums also may present patient advisory committees, patient family 234 Chapter 14 community relations models that can be adapt- an outgrowth of providing service to the public. These patrols should features have been produced, providing impor- emphasize observation, not intervention. Logs tant, accurate information to the public about summarizing observations should be main- the science and policy of opioid addiction and tained. Media outreach can demystify treat- ment programs to provide increased treatment ment, counteract stigma, and improve fairness intensity. Communications should be logged, and staff participation in community events should be Decisions to discharge patients for loitering summarized. Letters and communications should balance consequences for the individual substantiating community complaints and the patient and public health against the need to programís followup should be on file. Confidentiality Medicine hold national and regional confer- remains paramount, so this relationship should ences that bring together treatment providers, be delineated carefully. A database explain how to improve their current treatment should be developed and updated (e.
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