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Posterior tion is the technique of choice for avian cataract segment bleeding may result from choroidal vessels discount detrol 1 mg with amex, removal in patients with eyes large enough to accom- a damaged ciliary body discount detrol 4 mg with amex, or even in some cases, rup- modate the phacoemulsification probe. Toxoplasmosis tion aspiration technique, resulting in vision in 77% was diagnosed in a group of canaries with crusty of the eyes. Topical medications, particularly steroids, the infected birds had neurologic signs characterized must be applied cautiously to small birds to prevent by circling and head tremors. Horner’s syndrome was suggested as a diagnosis in one bird in which a unilateral ptosis and Intraocular Tumors mild miosis ameliorated by topical phenylephrine Intraocular tumors are rare in birds. Many companion birds can survive remarkably well with little or no vision, Neurophthalmology and Central Blindness as has been noted with cockatiels with cryptophthal- mos11 and Bobwhite Quail with dense bilateral cata- Blindness in birds may be caused by opacity of the racts;44 however, blindness can be very debilitating in visual media, retinal lesions or central neurologic disease. In cases where no obvious ocular cause of some smaller Passeriformes where flying from perch blindness can be observed, an electroretinogram can to perch is behaviorally important. Enucleation is frequently necessary in birds because Causes of central blindness may include cataracts, of trauma, non-responsive inflammation or tumors. Space-occupying brain lesions, particularly pituitary References and Suggested Reading 1. J Am Vet et al: Three cases of infection by spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona in budgerigars. Aviculture and veterinary problems vestigations of visual defects in rap- thalmology. A punctate or grid effective in controlling the uveitis in this keratotomy to restore normal epitheliza- case (courtesy of S. These changes are charac- responded to treatment with topical keto- teristic of uveitis not complicated by hy- conazole (courtesy of S. Phitisis bulbi with tion with topical steroid medication was wrinkling of the lid margins are also evi- slow and several synechiae remained. In this case, the contralateral An adult male cockatiel was presented with a three-week history of ocular discharge eye was unaffected, the bird’s behavior was normal and surgical removal of the and scratching of the face. A severe pan- ophthalmitis was noted on physical exami- cataract was not attempted (courtesy of K. The bird was tillating appearance of the cataract, indi- placed on systemic and ophthalmic antibi- cating some resorption. Extracapsular enucleation was performed six days after cataract extraction was performed and the initial presentation. Avian Pathol 15:687-695, Am Vet Med Assoc 183:1232-1233, men einer konjuntivitis unbekannter 53. J Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) he avian heart is divided into four complete chambers and is located midway in the tho- racic cavity in an indention in the sternum C H A P T E R T 50,91 parallel to the long axis of the body. The left ventricle is heavily walled and is about two to three times thicker than 27 the right. The right ventricle works as a volume pump and responds rapidly to an increased workload by dilation and hypertrophy. Rigor mortis may not occur if severe degenerative disease of the myocardium is present. The normal pericardial sac is clear and in contact with the epicardium circumferentially and the mediasti- nal pleura dorsally (see Color 13). A normal bird should have a small quantity of clear to slightly yellow fluid in the pericardial sac (see Color 14). Ritchie their internal structure is simple, lacking the T-tu- bules found in mammals. The small surface area precludes the need for a complex T-tubule system for excitation to occur. The increased cardiac output requires a higher cally separates the atria from the ventricles by pene- arterial pressure to produce higher blood flow rates. There are also fibers running to in general have a bigger heart than larger birds. Electrical conduction in Purkinje fibers is The aorta in birds is derived embryologically from about five times faster than in normal cardiac muscle the right fourth arterial arch and right dorsal aorta cells and hence the conduction system plays an im- and therefore the ascending aorta curves to the right portant role in regulating myocardial contraction. This structure can After transmission of the electrical impulses through be clearly seen radiographically on a ventrodorsal the ventricular conduction system, all areas of the projection. Blood is returned to the heart from the ventricles are activated in a coordinated fashion. Birds have a mean electrical axis that is negative, while the mean electrical axis in dogs is positive. This difference can be explained by the fact that in birds, the depolarization wave of the ventricles begins subepicardially and spreads through the myocar- dium to the endocardium, while in the dog, depolari- Evaluating the Avian Heart zation of the ventricles starts subendocardially. Electrical impulses are transported 1726 mixed avian species necropsied in one zoologi- along ordinary muscle fibers in the interatrial sep- cal collection. Subtle interatrial septum or the caudodorsal part of the murmurs are easiest to detect when birds are under interventricular septum. Auscultation of the heart can best be per- cardiovascular shunt as the cause of severe dyspnea formed on the left and right ventral thorax. The proce- or pulmonary fluid accumulation may cause muffled dure is performed by injecting a bolus dose of con- lung sounds or rales when a bird is auscultated over trast medium into the catheterized basilic vein. Of the imaging techniques, echocardiograms gener- Mild stress, such as occurs in the veterinary exami- ally provide the most diagnostic information. Echo- nation room or following restraint, may cause a bird’s cardiography was used successfully to detect valvu- heart rate to increase substantially (two to three lar endocarditis on the aortic valve of a four-year-old times normal). Staphylo- stress factors, drug exposure, toxins, diet, percent coccus was isolated from the vegetative lesion, which body fat and blood pressure can all alter the avian was seen as a large mass using this technique. As a rule, the heart rate in a bird that is small birds, the echocardiographic image of the heart being restrained is higher than the heart rate ob- is best obtained by sweeping through the liver. Color tained in the same bird if the rate had been deter- flow doppler was used to demonstrate mitral regur- mined using telemetry. Radiographic detection of cardiovascular abnormali- ties may be difficult, although an enlarged cardiac It was demonstrated in 1949 that the negative mean silhouette or microcardia can often be visualized.
Cuffed endotracheal tubes can be used safely in infants and young children detrol 1 mg visa, and may even be optimal to ensure adequate positive end-expiratory pressure delivery in the face of low pulmonary compliance  trusted 1mg detrol. Although mechanical ventilatory support is life- saving, low lung compliance and high ventilatory pressures can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury caused by alveolar overdistention (volutrauma), repeated alveolar collapse and reexpansion (atelectrauma) and oxygen toxicity . Barotrauma is characterised by the fact 7 Ventilatory Strategies in Acute Lung Injury 79 that mechanical forces (high-pressure inÀation) during arti¿cial inÀation cause pressure- related ‘‘shear forces’’ on inhomogeneous (partly aerated and partly consolidated) lung tissues . On microscopy, lungs show disruption of the alveolar capillary sheets with air leaks. Atelectrauma is de¿ned as repetitive opening and closing of alveolar units dur- ing mechanical ventilation, with alveolar–capillary stress failure. Volutrauma comes when large tidal volumes (Vt) cause disruption of alveolar–capillary sheets, pulmonary oedema, increased alveolar–capillary permeability, alveolar–capillary stress failure and structural abnormalities on electron microscopy [15, 16]. Additionally, mechani- cal stretch activates many signal transduction pathways (e. However, the exact relationship between pro- and anti-inÀammatory mediators and their balance are still under debate: they might differ in children and may occur in healthy as well as in preinjured lungs (e. Finally, these proinÀammatory mediators may spill over from the pulmonary compartment to the systemic circulation and trigger a generalised inÀam- matory response in major organs, leading to multiorgan failure and death . Furthermore, overdistention should be prevented and high-pressure ventilation avoided. Many clinical case series have shown that oxygenation improved in children when placed in the prone position [36–46]. Oxygenation improves within a short period (1–2 h) after position change and can be sustained. In summary, at this time, there is not enough evidence to recommend prone positioning for routine use. Knowledge is based on the direct experience of clinicians working in the ¿eld, and a variety of routines are ap- plied. The sen- sitivity of inspiratory and expiratory triggers is of great importance in children, in particu- lar in case of air leaks through the interface. In adults, ineffective inspiratory efforts and double triggering are the most common types of asynchrony leading to patient discomfort , whereas in children, autotriggering has been shown to be the primary cause of dif¿- cult patient–ventilator interaction . To minimise asynchrony, the following options can be considered: (1) setting an inspiratory trigger that is as sensitive as possible but avoiding autotriggering; (2) preventing prolonged inspiratory time using a preset limited inspiratory time or an appropriate Àow threshold of the expiratory trigger; (3) using ventilators with leak-compensation software . An interface that ¿ts properly is crucial to minimise air leaks and maximise noninvasive respiratory support treatment ef¿ciency and success. The interfaces have included facial masks, moulded masks and modi¿ed nasal cannulae, and in some cases full-face masks, but nasal masks seem to be preferred, particularly in younger children. The transparent paediatric helmets, made of polyvinyl chloride have been pro- posed as a possible alternative to masks, with potential advantages: (1) good tolerability; (2) no air leakage; (3) more stable ¿xation system; (4) speaking and coughing is facilitated; (5) application regardless of facial contour, facial trauma or edentulism; (6) lower risk of pressure sores, resulting in better comfort and prolonged time of use . The authors demonstrated the use of the helmet was better tolerated, required less patient sedation, allowed a more prolonged application time and avoided facial skin irritation when compared with a facial mask. Humidity was 98% (98–99%) and fell to 40% (39–43%) after the humidi¿er was stopped. The bene¿t of heliox has been attributed to its lower density, leading to reduction of the respiratory muscle work of breathing . As heliox is effective when used at a concentration >60%, bene¿ts cannot be expected for patients with oxygen requirements >40%. In the ¿rst epidemic, invasive ventilation by tracheal intubation was the sole ventilatory support strategy available (invasive ventilation period). It is noteworthy that the higher intubation rate was reported in the youngest patients, and one could speculate the facial mask is not the recommended device in that age group. Actually, most papers suggest the use of nasal masks in infants with respiratory disorders [52, 62, 63]. The authors showed treatment effectiveness, and intubation was avoided in >50% of children. Randolph G (2009) Management of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in children. Erickson S, Schibler A, Numa A et al (2007) Acute lung injury in pediatric intensive care in Australia and New Zealand: A prospective, multicenter, observational study. Dreyfuss D, Saumon G (1998) Ventilator-induced lung injury: lessons from experi- mental studies. Gattinoni L, Caironi P, Cressoni M et al (2006) Lung recruitment in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. L’Her E, Renault A, Oger E et al (2002) A prospective survey of early 12-h prone positioning effects in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Gattinoni L, Tognoni G, Pesenti A et al (2001) Effect of prone positioning on the survival of patients with acute respiratory failure. Fan E, Mehta S (2005) High-frequency oscillatory ventilation and adjunctive thera- pies: inhaled nitric oxide and prone positioning. Valenza F, Guglielmi M, Maf¿oletti M et al (2005) Prone position delays the pro- gression of ventilator-induced lung injury in rats: does lung strain distribution play a role? Vieillard-Baron A, Rabiller A et al (2005) Prone position improves mechanics and alveolar ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Essouri S, Durand P, Chevret L et al (2008) Physiological effects of noninvasive positive ventilation during acute moderate hypercapnic respiratory insuf¿ciency in children. Mayordomo-Colunga J, Medina A, Corsino R et al (2009) Predictive factors of non invasive ventilation failure in critically ill children: a prospective epidemiological study. Essouri S, Chevret L, Durand P et al (2006) Noninvasive positive pressure ventila- tion: ¿ve years of experience in a pediatric intensive care unit. Vignaux L, Vargas F, Roeseler J et al (2009) Patient-ventilator asynchrony during 88 E. Codazzi D, Nacoti M, Passoni M et al (2006) Continuous positive airway pressure with modi¿ed helmet for treatment of hypoxemic acute respiratory failure in infants and a preschool population: A feasibility study. Chidini G, Calderini E, Pelosi P (2010) Treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with continuous positive airway pressure delivered by a new pediatric hel- met in comparison with a standard full face mask: a prospective pilot study. Milési C, Ferragu F, Jaber S et al (2010) Continuous positive airway pressure venti- lation with helmet in infants under 1 year. Cambonie G, Milesi C, Fournier-Favre S et al (2006) Clinical effects of heliox ad- ministration for acute bronchiolitis in young infants. Javouhey E, Barats A, Richard N et al (2008) Non-invasive ventilation as prima- ry ventilatory support for infants with severe bronchiolitis. The number of children with chronic respiratory failure requiring long-term ventilation support, even 24 h a day, is constantly increasing as a consequence of better medical treatment and technological advances that have contributed to longer survival of critical patients and to the development of suitable home medical equipment [2–4].
Drops of liquid containing minute quantities of the offending pollen(s) are placed under the tongue discount detrol 2mg mastercard. Sublingual immunotherapy can be more convenient than traditional subcutaneous immunotherapy—there is no need to come in for shots—and it takes less time buy 1 mg detrol mastercard. In these studies, quercetin has been shown to exert signiﬁcant antiallergy effects. In particular, it prevents the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils. This form has shown signiﬁcant effects in improving some of symptoms of hay fever in double-blind clinical studies. However, no signiﬁcant differences were found in nasal symptoms between the two groups. Apple Polyphenols Two double-blind studies showed apple polyphenols to reduce hay fever symptoms. The second study was of patients with persistent allergic rhinitis due to house dust mites. Signiﬁcant improvements were observed in sneezing attacks and nasal discharge in the high-dose group and in sneezing attacks in the low-dose group. There was also a signiﬁcant improvement observed in swelling of the nasal passages in the treated groups. Similar results may be achieved with other polyphenol-rich extracts such as grape seed, pine bark, or green tea extract. Otherwise, allergen avoidance and supporting the body’s antiallergy mechanisms appear to offer some benefit. Diet Eliminate all food allergens and food additives to reduce the allergic threshold. If you have multiple food allergies, utilize a four-day rotation diet, as described in the chapter “Food Allergy. Headaches can be caused by a wide variety of factors, but the overwhelming majority that require medical attention are either tension or migraine headaches. Tension headaches usually have a steady, constant, dull pain that starts at the back of the head or in the forehead and spreads over the entire head, giving the sensation of pressure or a feeling that a vise grip has been applied to the skull. In contrast, migraine headaches are vascular headaches characterized by a throbbing or pounding sharp pain. The tightening of the muscles results in pinching of the nerve or its blood supply, which results in the sensation of pain and pressure. Often the headache can be worsened (or improved) by applying hand pressure to trigger points on neck muscles. A tension headache only rarely mimics other types of headaches of a more serious nature, such as those associated with a stroke or brain tumor. Consult a physician immediately if a headache feels different from a tension headache or migraine, or if the headache is unrelenting. Therapeutic Considerations Modern drug treatment of headache, whether migraine or tension, is ultimately doomed because it fails to address the underlying cause and as a result produces signiﬁcant risk for side effects. Rather than focusing on identifying and eliminating the precipitating factor, the goal with headache medications is simply to provide symptomatic relief. Particularly interesting are several clinical studies estimating that approximately 70% of patients with chronic headaches suffer from drug-induced headaches, a result of the medications they are taking to suppress the symptoms of headache. In other words, the headache medications are giving them headaches, and if they quit taking the drugs their headaches go away. In one study of 200 patients suffering from analgesic rebound headache, discontinuation of these medications resulted in a 52% improvement in the total headache index. Speciﬁc improvements occurred in headache frequency and severity, general well-being, and sleep patterns, and there were also reductions in irritability, depression, and lethargy. Particularly helpful are physical treatments such as massage, chiropractic, and other forms of bodywork (discussed later in this chapter). Bodywork is the term often used to describe healing techniques that work with the structure of the body. Virtually all bodywork techniques may be helpful in the treatment of both acute and chronic tension headaches. However, rather than simply getting a massage whenever a headache appears, we recommend seeking out physical therapies that teach people to become aware of body tension and posture. Chiropractic care can be quite helpful when misalignment of the spine creates muscular tension in the neck. A follow-up analysis provided additional support for the value of chiropractic care. However, if you do not get relief within a few sessions, either this is not what you need or you should ﬁnd another practitioner. We also do not agree with some chiropractors’ recommendation that treatments be continued indeﬁnitely. The best chiropractors not only adjust your neck or other areas of the spine needing attention but also provide you with postural and muscle exercises to correct the causes of the underlying imbalance. An alternative to chiropractic care involves getting a referral to a conventional physical therapist from your primary care doctor. Clinical studies have shown that conventional physical therapy (consisting of education for posture at home and in the workplace, home exercise, massage, and stretching of the cervical spine muscles) can reduce the frequency and severity of tension headaches. Results indicated that the frequency of headaches and activity scores were signiﬁcantly improved over the course of treatment. Given the problems associated with chronic use of aspirin and other pain relievers, this study provides evidence that addressing the cause rather than suppressing symptoms is clearly the better approach. The next goal is to learn how to relax the tight muscles by alternating tension and then relaxation in the muscle. One of the more interesting studies compared the effectiveness of school-based, nurse- administered relaxation training vs. So teaching children with chronic tension headaches how to relax can be quite effective, and it is without side effects. What we really like about this therapy is that the children get a better message: rather than seeking relief from a drug, they learn how to control the headache themselves. If these treatments are not effective, the next step is to follow the recommendations given in the chapter “Migraine Headache. Finally, occasional use of aspirin (or willow bark extracts standardized for salicin, the natural form of aspirin) or acetaminophen is safe and effective in the treatment of an acute headache.
Along these same lines purchase 2mg detrol with mastercard, there is a comparable argument that might be made regarding somatic cell gene therapy purchase 4mg detrol free shipping. That is, like the artiﬁcial heart, somatic cell gene therapy may prove to be another very expensive “half-way” technology. This means that the intervention does not really cure the medical problem; instead, the problem is substantially ameliorated through repeated application of the technology. The need for repeated application of the technology is what adds dramatically to the social costs of the technology. If this is what happens, however, then we believe a strong case could be made, from the perspective of health care justice, for giving lower funding priority to somatic gene therapy relative to germline gene therapy. A second version of the justice objection starts with the assumption that it would be very improbable that a technology as promising as germline genetic engineering could fail to be developed in our society. We also assume that this would be a costly technology, perhaps costing $50,000 per genetically engineered and implanted embryo. If this sort of intervention were not covered by health insurance, then only the fairly afﬂuent could afford it. If both positive and negative genetic engineering were options, then the wealthy would be able to buy opportunity-enhancing inter- ventions for their children that would result in a widening of the gap between our professed societal commitment to equality of opportunity and the actual extent to which equality of opportunity was protected in practice (Brock, 1994). Further, the enhanced opportunities thereby purchased would be purchased not simply for their children but for an indeﬁnitely long line of descendants, thereby creating rigidiﬁed class structures and diminished opportunities for those already less well off in our society, which is prima facie unjust. An alternate scenario assumes that private insurance coverage would be avail- able for germline genetic intervention. But this is hardly a more promising scenario if our concern is with protecting justice. If two million middle-class embryos were genetically engi- neered at $50,000 each, that would add $100 billion to the cost of health care each year. This would do nothing to correct the problems of injustice so far as fair equal- ity of opportunity was concerned for those less well off in our society. On the con- trary, they would be worsened because a feature of private health insurance now is that it is exempt from federal income tax and the social security tax, which repre- sented a $80 billion subsidy (tax expenditure) for the middle class in 1996. Under this scenario that subsidy would increase by $28 billion per year, real revenue for the federal government, which would translate into program cuts or increased taxes. Meanwhile in the private sector businesses faced with increased insurance costs would struggle harder to extract discounts from hospitals, thereby diminishing the resources hospitals now use to underwrite the costs of some health care for the uninsured. In short, the welfare of the poor and uninsured would be most threatened under this scenario. Further, the prospects for more equitable access to health care for the poor and uninsured through national health insurance becomes more remote, politically speaking, because expanding access for them to a constantly improving package of health services would mean higher costs to the middle class and, likely, reduced health beneﬁts for them relative to the generous packages they now have. The con- clusion of this argument is that if we want to protect just access to health care for all, then we ought to ban germline genetic engineering as a therapeutic option. But there is an alternate way of concluding the argument that is morally preferable. Speciﬁ- cally, what we are morally obligated to do as a society is to put in place a truly national health care insurance mechanism: universal access to a fairly thick package of health beneﬁts. As noted earlier, this argument is highly sensitive to medical and economic facts, all of which are hypothetical here. But if there were this strong connection in fact to protecting fair equality of opportunity, then this would be a justice argument supportive of deploying at least negative germline genetic engineering. Slippery Slope to Eugenics The last moral objection we need to consider is the “slippery slope to eugenics” argument. The term eugenics is historically asso- ciated with the eugenics movement of the 1920s and 1930s as well as with the atroc- ities of Nazi Germany. A common form of the slippery slope argument is that we would start by permitting negative germline genetic engineering freely chosen by parents for their offspring, which would be viewed as a morally reasonable option, but before long we would have social policies coercively imposed that would mandate genetic enhancement of all embryos to maximize the genetic well-being of society and reduce future health care costs. The quick response to this objection is that the feared slide toward eugenics can be prevented by putting in place social policies supportive of reproductive freedom and professional practices that restrict such genetic reproductive decision making to the privacy of the doctor–patient relationship. Diane Paul (1994) and others (Lippman, 1991; Karjala, 1992; Holtzman/ Rothstein, 1992) have made the argument that reproductive genetic freedom can have eugenic consequences just as morally objectionable as the most coercive of government policies. What can easily happen is that social pressures and profes- sional “judgment” can conspire with one another to elicit socially correct genetic choices from prospective parents in the privacy of the doctor–patient relationship under the guise of reproductive freedom and informed consent. In addition, private insurance companies can exercise their free market rights and responsibility to protect “actuarial fairness” for all their clients by denying health insurance cover- age to children born with preventable genetic disorders. Given this, we must observe that the “virtue” of coercive government eugenic policies is that they are public and visible and open to democratic criticism and change. By way of contrast, social pres- sures are private, organizationally diffuse, unaccountable but oftentimes morally legitimated (reproductive freedom/best interests of the future child); and therefore, they are extremely difﬁcult to control or change (try to get a court order against social pressure). The conclusion of this line of argument is that we ought to ban germline genetic engineering altogether. This would mean inﬂicting premature death, chronic disabilities, and considerable suffering on tens of millions of future individuals—all of which would be preventable and, hence, presumptively morally problematic; but the eugenic consequences of the alternative are judged to be even more morally intolerable. This last line of argument deserves a more subtle and complex response than space permits. Someone might want to argue that this represents effective (but informal) violation of their rights to free speech. If there is strong social pressure for negative germline engi- neering, such that parents who chose to have their children naturally and take the risks associated with the genetic lottery when they had the option of ensuring a healthy genetic endowment for their children would be thought of by the rest of society as being irresponsible, then it is not obvious that this is morally or politically objectionable. Like the Amish, these parents could resist pressures for conformity to contemporary social mores. Societally available negative germline genetic engineering would have eugenic effects, but it is not obvious that this in itself is morally objectionable. On the con- trary, there are numerous moral considerations that would justify seeing this as a morally permissible and morally desirable outcome. Some might claim that this rep- resents an evisceration of reproductive freedom; but the alternate perspective is that this represents social pressure for the responsible use of reproductive freedom. But what is most morally objection- able about eugenics is that society would use individuals as mere means to eugenic ends, typically employing coercive means rather than methods of rational persua- sion. On the contrary, we assume that rational persuasion and rationally well-founded beliefs would be at the core of the social pressure to which we have alluded. We have deliberated avoided introducing positive genetic engineering in the latter parts of this discussion. What we believe we have succeeded in doing is suggesting moral arguments that would support a presumption in favor of continuing the development of germline genetic engineering. That is, we have argued that germline genetic engineering is not intrinsically morally objectionable.